Your brain’s heightened sensitivity can make you perceptive and creative. But it’s a double-edged sword, researchers find.你的大脑如果高度敏感,会给你带来洞察力和创造力, 但研究人员发现,这也是一把双刃剑。

It turns out that a high IQ is also associated with various mental and immunological diseases like depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, ADHD as well as allergies, asthma, and immune disorders. 事实证明,高智商还与各种精神和免疫疾病有关,如抑郁症、双相情感障碍、焦虑症、多动症以及过敏、哮喘和一些免疫疾病。

A survey showed that highly intelligent people are 20% more likely to be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 80% more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD, 83% more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety, and 182% more likely to develop at least one mood disorder.一项调查显示,高智商的人被诊断患有自闭症谱系障碍 (ASD) 的可能性会增加 20%,患多动症的可能性增加 80%,患焦虑症增加 83%,只有多 182% 的可能性出现至少一种情绪障碍。

When it comes to physiological diseases, people with high cognitive abilities are 213% more likely to have environmental allergies, 108% more likely to have asthma, and 84% more likely to have an autoimmune disease.在生理疾病方面,认知能力高的人患环境过敏的可能性增加 213%,患哮喘的可能性增加 108%,患自身免疫性疾病的可能性增加 84%。

The researchers turned to the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) to look for some of the answers. PNI examines how the chronic stress accumulated as a response to environmental factors influences the communication between the brain and the immune system.研究人员尝试在心理神经免疫学 (PNI) 领域寻找答案。 PNI 研究的是作为对环境因素的反应而积累的慢性压力,如何影响大脑和免疫系统之间的交流。

The researchers point out that highly intelligent people have tendencies for “intellectual overexcitabilites” and a hyper-reactivity of the central nervous system. 研究人员指出,高智商的人有“智力过度兴奋”和中枢神经系统过度反应的倾向。

On the one hand, this gives people with high IQ heightened awareness that helps their creative and artistic work. 一方面,这让智商高的人提高了意识,有助于他们的创造性和艺术工作。

In fact, the field of cognitive ability recognizes one aspect of highly intelligent people to be “a broader and deeper capacity to comprehend their surroundings.”事实上,认知能力的意思是,高智商的一个方面就是“在理解周围环境时,能更广泛,更深入”。

This hyper-reactivity, however, can also lead to deeper depressions and poor mental health. This turns out to be particularly true for poets, novelists and people with high verbal intelligence. Their intense emotional response to the environment increases tendencies for rumination and worry, both of which predict depression and anxiety disorders.然而,这种过度反应也可能导致更深的抑郁和心理健康状况不佳。 事实证明,对于诗人、小说家和语言天分高的人来说更是如此。 他们对环境的强烈情绪反应,增加了沉思和担忧的倾向,这两者都会导向着抑郁症和焦虑症。

Heightened psychological responses can affect immunity, write the researchers. People with overexcitabilites may have strong reactions to seemingly harmless external stimuli like an annoying clothing tag or a sound. This reaction may turn into low level chronic stress and launch an inappropriate immune response. 美国研究人员在报告中写道,增强的心理反应会影响免疫力。 过度兴奋的人可能会对看似无害的外部刺激(如烦人的衣服标签或声音)产生强烈反应。 这种反应可能会变成低水平的慢性压力,并引发不适当的免疫反应。

When the body believes it is in danger (regardless of whether it is an objectively real one like a toxin or an imagined one like an annoying sound), it launches a cascade of physiological responses that include a myriad of hormones, neurotransmitters and signaling molecules. When these processes are chronically activated, they can alter the body and the brain, dysregulate immune function and lead to conditions like asthma, allergies and autoimmune diseases.当身体认为自己处于危险之中时(无论它是客观真实的,如毒素,还是想象中的,如恼人的声音),它会启动一系列生理反应,包括无数的激素、神经递质和信号分子。 当这些过程被长期激活时,它们会改变身体和大脑,使得免疫功能失调,并导致哮喘、过敏和自身免疫性疾病等疾病。

The scientific literature has confirmed the association between gifted children and an increased rate of allergies and asthma. One study shows that 44% of those with an IQ over 160 suffered from allergies compared to 20% of age-matched peers. Тhe exploratory study done by the authors of this latest paper further supports that connection. 科学研究已经证实了天才儿童与过敏和哮喘发病率增加之间的关联。 一项研究表明,智商超过 160 的人中有 44% 患有过敏症,而年龄匹配的同龄人中一般只有 20% 。 上述这篇最新论文的作者所做的探索性研究,也同样支持这种联系。

Based on their findings and previous studies the researchers have termed this phenomenon the hyper brain / hyper body theory of integration, explaining that:根据他们的发现和之前的研究,研究人员将这种现象称为超大脑/超身体整合理论,并解释说:

The overexcitabilities specific to those with high intelligence may put these individuals at risk for hypersensitivity to internal and/or external environmental events. 高智商者特有的过度兴奋可能会使这些人面临对内部和/或外部环境事件,出现过敏的风险。

The rumination and worry that accompanies this heightened awareness may contribute to a chronic pattern of fight, flight, or freeze responses which then launch a cascade of immunological events. […] 伴随着这种提高意识所出现的沉思和担忧,可能会导致一种长期的战斗、逃跑或冻结反应模式,然后引发一连串的免疫事件。 […]

Ideally, immune regulation is an optimal balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory response. It should zero in on inflammation with force and then immediately return to a calm state. In those with the overexcitabilities previously discussed, including in those with ASD, this system appears to fail to achieve a balance and thus inflammatory signals create a state of chronic activation.理想情况下,免疫调节是促炎和抗炎反应的最佳平衡。 它应该用力将炎症归零,然后立即恢复平静状态。 但很遗憾,对于上面这些容易过度兴奋的人,包括 ASD 患者,该系统似乎无法达到平衡,因此炎症信号会产生慢性激活状态。

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